The town of Hsinchu, now famous for its Science-based Industrial Park, was first developed in 1723. It was first called Hsinchu in 1875, and was upgraded to a provincial city in 1982.

The Hsinchu administrative district includes Xiangshan and covers an area of about 104 square kilometers. It has gained considerable prosperity and an international reputation since the creation of the Hsinchu Science-based industrial Park. Hsinchu City is loacted in the northwestern part of Hsinchu County, its highedt point rising onlt 120 meters above sea level. The Hsinchu plain slopes upward to the east, and merges into Eighteen Peaks Mountain and Niupu Mountains. Most of the eastern part of the county is covered with foothills and small mountains.